Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following is a summary of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of the exchange offers to beneficial holders whose unregistered original notes are tendered and accepted in the exchange offer, including the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of registered exchange notes acquired pursuant to the exchange offer. This summary is general in nature and does not discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to a particular holder in light of the holder’s particular circumstances or to certain types of holders subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax laws (such as banks and thrifts, insurance companies, tax-exempt organizations, regulated investment companies, real estate investment trusts, trusts and estates, partnerships or other pass-through entities, or investors in such pass-through entities, persons holding original notes or exchange notes as part of a hedging, integrated, conversion or constructive sale transaction or a straddle, financial institutions, brokers, dealers in securities or currencies, traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to-market method of tax accounting for their securities holdings, government agencies or instrumentalities, persons that acquire original notes or exchange notes in connection with employment or other performance of services, U.S. Holders (as defined below) that have a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar, controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies, and U.S. expatriates). In addition, the discussion does not consider the effect of any alternative minimum taxes or foreign, state, local or other tax laws, or any U.S. tax considerations (such as estate or gift tax laws) other than certain U.S. federal income tax considerations that may be applicable to particular holders. Further, this summary assumes that holders hold their original notes and exchange notes as “capital assets” (generally, property held for investment) within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). This summary does not address the tax consequences to any shareholder, beneficiary or other owner of a holder of original notes or exchange notes.
This summary is based on the Code and the U.S. Treasury regulations, rulings, administrative pronouncements, and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, all of which are subject to differing interpretations and may be changed, perhaps retroactively, resulting in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed in this summary. We have not obtained, nor do we intend to obtain, a ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge any of the conclusions set forth herein.
If a partnership (including an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds original notes or exchange notes, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Holders that are partnerships holding original notes or exchange notes (and partners in such partnerships) are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the exchange offers and the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of exchange notes acquired pursuant thereto.
As used in this summary, a “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of original notes or exchange notes that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
an individual citizen or resident of the United States,
a corporation, including any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in, or under the laws of, the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia,
an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, or
a trust, if (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (ii) it has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.
As used herein, a “Non-U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of original notes or exchange notes that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, an individual, corporation, estate or trust that is not a U.S. Holder. Special rules may apply Non-U.S. Holders that are subject to special treatment under the Code, including controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies, certain U.S. expatriates, and